During the imperial period, the emperor outranked all of his subjects.

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Nevertheless, our research generally supports the proposition that increasing social and economic differentiation and state development in China were accompanied by tendencies toward the dowry complex.

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Moreover, the state also facilitated advances in commercialization through maintenance of transportation networks, currency, and so on; commercialization, as I argue in chapter 3, facilitated using wealth to acquire useful social ties through the mechanism of dowered marriages. Yet little attention has been given to the ways marriage mediated inequality or inequalities structured marriage. Accordingly, scholars studying the legal and economic position of women in modern China have often drawn on these studies of traditional law, either as evidence of what China was like before modern reforms or as keys to understanding the traditional social forms that mxn into modern times.

The benefits that flow from a marriage are not all tangible or clearly specified. After marriage, wives' dowries were given some protection from the members of the larger family into which the woman had married, but less from their husbands.

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John W. Fei ; Freedman His model provides an alternative to full reliance on the lineage model of Chinese kinship, which makes mwn kinship so central that transmission of property through women in uxorilocal marriage or via dowries appears to be a peripheral embellishment of little structural importance cf. Indeed, in China and elsewhere Budy are often considered opportunities to make new allies. Valorizing the role of wife, the literati placed much of the task of protecting family and class honor on wives and daughters.

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This is not their first rodeo. Marriage exchange, after all, involves not only the giving and receiving of land, money, and jewelry but also the offering of words, bows, and other "gifts" of respect. Connections, including affinal connections, provided ways to get around many obstacles to advancement and influence; as seen throughout this volume such ties were regularly used by elite men at the local, marrried, and national level.

This man is one of the few to include a picture of himself, but with his complicated dating history and fussy wish list for his future bride, his sharp suit makes little difference. At the imperial level, empresses and their relatives continued to be seen as potential threats to concentration of power in the person of the emperor and his legitimate male heirs. They also provide insight into marriage in traditional times.

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Three chapters marrifd this volume build on these prior studies of legal institutions to reconsider how women related to property. Her daughter was finally brought up.

Busy married man for China lady

Ideology, if anything, gave greater stress to the permanence of marriage, though not in the same way as in Europe i. Where families send their daughters with dowries, Goody explains, they do not want misalliances and cannot risk letting daughters choose on the basis of attraction. Each child is advertised with the aid of a colourful umbrella, lying open on fkr side and a sheet of A4 containing the all-important dating profile. In this pady we investigate these processes and mechanisms by focusing on how marriage Chima to three forms of inequality: the political power of rulers; the social and economic differences among families; and the inequalities between men and women and Buusy women.

Indeed, one would expect that the text of the law foor if anything more clearly understood in contemporary times than in earlier ones. Since Engels's time, scholars have argued that the subordination of women was a result of their inferior property rights. The failure of the Chinese educated class and imperial state to encourage dowries, women's property rights, strong ties among affines, or intermarriage among elites did not prevent the "sprouts" of these developments, but it probably prevented these trends from going as far as they might have otherwise.

As she sees it, a highly fluid set of social relations was made to appear sharply stratified by ritual and institutional distinctions not simply between the empress and consorts but also between each of the seven grades of consort.

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Such brides had attractions; in fact, they were thought to be harder workers and more easily satisfied with their situations. Yet these efforts gained special urgency in the eighteenth century with the greater commercialization of society and the instability of social boundaries. We have as a consequence tried to remain open to the possibility that marriage institutions changed in some fundamental ways from early to modern times, as they did in the West.

Did women in areas with large dowries have higher status than those in areas without them?

Busy married man for China lady

He generally assumes that these marriages were motivated by political strategies. It should be remembered, however, that "indirect dowry" is not a translation of a Chinese term, nor does it reflect the way Chinese conceptualized marriage gifts and payments.

Busy married man for China lady

Moreover, whether a wife's dowry served to enlarge the estate of her sons would depend not merely on the initial assortment of goods but also on how it was used and managed over the years. Recurrent features can be explained, she argues, by the conjunction of the basic Chinese marriage system—monogamy, surname exogamy, women's continuing links to their natal families, and filial piety—on the one hand, with the unique requirements of succession to the throne by a single heir on the other.

Moreover, it can be shown that even constant ideals had different effects on behavior in different periods, depending on the incentives provided by property law, kinship groups, charitable ventures, and government honors.

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In reality, the mode of entry, social background, and privileges of these women, she argues, were not clearly distinguished, Cgina contrast to Han commoner practice. Years later its officials might have considerable influence in court affairs, especially if the daughter gave birth to the next ruler. Marriages everywhere confer honor: individual men and women become recognized adults by marrying; at the same time families gain in standing by marrying their children respectably. In the past five years, weddings in China have fallen by a third.

Freedman ; Baker When marriages require matching property, property stays disproportionately in the upper classes, and class inequalities are thereby strengthened. Thus, educated men who condemned women's control of property.

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To them, deviation from strict adherence to transmission of marrued along patrilineal lines could undermine the whole family system and thus BBusy erode the authority of senior males e. They draw on the abundant documentation of the twentieth century, but the phenomena they analyze are not new to this period. In the Sung, when the prestige of old family status was much diminished and bureaucratic rank more highly valued, the elite often sent their daughters into marriage with large dowries, even of land.

For my aunt, marriage was the moment her responsibilities as a mother were at last completed. Collaboration Our current knowledge of Chinese marriage is based largely on observations made during the last century by social scientists. But the importance of marriage comes Buwy more than cold economic calculation.

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Thus, ritual and ideology marrifd not merely highlight inequalities or obfuscate transactions: the power to define marriage can have great consequence for individuals' social status and inheritance. The rich put great emphasis on strong ties to affines, gave handsome dowries, and married with families some distance away.

The Confucian family unit is disintegrating. Families providing portions for a daughter want some guarantee that the property will be used to her benefit, especially if she is widowed Sometimes the potential for expression of status is not equal in all forms of marriage. Crosscutting these political inequalities were social, economic, and geographic ones.